If direct talks between the parties fail, the Convention gives them a choice of four procedures – some new, some old ones: filing the case with the International Court of Justice for the Law of the Sea, the decision of the International Court of Justice, submission to mandatory international arbitration or submission to special arbitration tribunals competent for certain types of litigation. All of these procedures involve a binding third-party regime, in which a representative other than the parties directly concerned makes a decision that the parties agree to respect in advance. The conference was convened in New York in 1973. It ended nine years later with the adoption of a Constitution for the Seas, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. During the nine-year round trip from New York to Geneva, representatives from more than 160 sovereign states met to discuss issues, negotiate and exchange national rights and duties during the marathon negotiations that produced the Agreement. In the ten years since the convention was adopted, a number of significant political and economic changes have taken place, some of which relate directly to the provisions of the DeepWater Mines Convention, others to international relations in general. In the meantime, the dominant economic forecast on which the seabed mining regime was built has not been realized. The Assembly rejected the idea of amending the articles of Confederation and turned to the alignment of a new government scheme, but it found itself divided, delegates from small states (who are not entitled to unoccupied Western countries) and opposing those of the large states above the distribution of representation. Edmund Randolph proposed a plan known as Virginia or the great state, which provided for bicameral legislative power with each state`s derion on the basis of its population or wealth. William Paterson proposed the plan for New Jersey, which provided for equal representation in Congress.
Neither the big nor the small states would give in. Oliver Ellsworth and Roger Sherman, among others, in what is sometimes emed Connecticut, or Great, Compromise, proposed a double legislative chamber with proportional representation in the House of Commons and equal representation of states in the House of Lords. All income measures would come from the House of Commons. This compromise was adopted on 16 July. The Convention also contains a new specificity of international law, the regime applicable to the states of the archipelago (states such as the Philippines and Indonesia, which are made up of a group of islands with limited space). For these states, the coastal sea is a 12-mile zone that stretches from a line connecting the most extreme points of the group`s most extreme islands, which are in the immediate vicinity. The waters between the islands are declared waters of the archipelago, where ships of all states enjoy the innocent right of passage. In these waters, states can set up sea lanes and routes on which all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of rapid and unhindered right of passage. In 1802, in Plymouth, future President John Quincy Adams stressed the enduring importance of the agreement signed more than 180 years earlier aboard the Mayflower, citing it “perhaps the only example in human history of this positive and original social pact, which speculative philosophers presented as the only legitimate source of government.” The only exception to these provisions concerns sensitive cases of national sovereignty.